Heterozygous

Heterozygous

Heterozygous Definition A heterozygous individual is a diploid organism with two alleles, each of a different type. Individuals with alleles of the same type are known as homozygous individuals. An allele is a variation of a gene that affects the functionality of the protein produced by the gene.  There can be many alleles in a … Read more

Analogous Structures

Analogous Structures

Definition Analogous structures are similar structures that evolved independently in two living organisms to serve the same purpose. The term “analogous structures” comes from the root word “analogy,” which is a device in the English language where two different things on a basis of their similarities. Analogous structures are examples of convergent evolution, where two … Read more

Sarcomere

Sarcomere

Sarcomere definition A sarcomere is the functional unit of striated muscle. This means it is the most basic unit that makes up our skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is the muscle type that initiates all of our voluntary movement. Herein lies the sarcomere’s main purpose. Sarcomeres are able to initiate large, sweeping movement by contracting in … Read more

Electron Transport Chain

Electron Transport Chain

Electron Transport Chain Definition The electron transport chain is a cluster of proteins that transfer electrons through a membrane within mitochondria to form a gradient of protons that drives the creation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is used by the cell as the energy for metabolic processes for cellular functions. Where Does the Electron Transport … Read more

Mitochondria

Mitochondria

Definition Mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) are organelles within eukaryotic cells that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main energy molecule used by the cell. For this reason, the mitochondrion is sometimes referred to as “the powerhouse of the cell”.  Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotes, which are all living things that are not bacteria or archaea. It … Read more

Centriole

Centriole

Centriole Definition A centriole is a small structure made of microtubules which exists as part of the centrosome, which helps organize microtubules in the body. A centriole is the main unit that creates and anchors microtubules in the cell. Typically, a eukaryotic cell has one centriole that is at a right angle to a second … Read more

Ionic Bond Examples

Ionic Bond

Ionic bonds are one of the two main types of chemical bonds. They form as a result of electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions and usually occur between metals and non-metals. When lots of ions bind together, they form a giant, regular, 3D structure called the ionic lattice, or crystal lattice. What is an Ionic … Read more

Serum vs. Plasma

Serum vs. Plasma

Serum and plasma are both liquid components of blood. Both are mainly made up of water, and both contain electrolytes, antibodies, nutrients, waste products, and other proteins. However, blood plasma also contains blood cells and clotting factors, whereas blood serum does not. The Key Components of Blood Blood is the red fluid that flows through … Read more

Are Honors Courses Weighted? The Pros and Cons of Taking Them

Honors Courses

In high school and many colleges, you may have the option to attend honors courses. But should you take these? And since they’re tougher than normal classes, how will that affect your overall grades? We’ll go over the basics of honors classes, whether or not they’re weighted, and what decision is right for you in … Read more

How Many Cells Are in the Human Body?

Cells

There are trillions of cells in the human body, which makes it a complex multicellular organism. Scientists estimate that the adult human body contains 37 trillion human cells and 200 different types of cells. Another 10 to 100 trillion microbial cells comprise the human microbiota (which is primarily found in the gut). There are around 200 … Read more